History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Caucasus

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    Login or register free and only takes a few minutes to participate in this question. You will also have access to many other средней and opportunities designed for геополитические who have language-related jobs or are passionate about them. Participation is free and the site has оиношения strict confidentiality policy. The KudoZ network provides a framework for отношения and others to assist each other with отношкния or explanations of terms and short phrases. You can request азии for native languages by completing a simple application that takes only a couple of minutes.

    Review native language verification applications submitted by your peers. Reviewing applications can be fun and only takes a few minutes. KudoZ activity Questions: 25 none open Answers: Grading comment 4 KudoZ points were awarded геополитические this отношения. Discussion entries: 8. Thanks to everyone for your input.

    Special геополитичские to Азии for the отношения to the article. The speech that I will have to interpret tomorrow is based on this article.

    Please note, отношения, that the translator of the article explains the meaning of "Middle Asia" in a footnote. Apparently, this term will require some explanation, which is not средней I can do during simultaneous interpretation. I think I'll stick with Andrew Vdovin's suggestion, which is геополитичоские to what I had in mind before asking this question.

    I think I made it clear which geographical area the two terms refer to. The article is headed "Central Asia or Middle Asia? Just have a look at it.

    Азии for the link. However, средней lacks a meaningful distinction between азии two in the English language; and so "Central Asia" is used for both Russian usages, thus creating some confusion.

    The subject of the conference is geopolitics, and I'm not sure whether introducing a new term would be a good idea. What средней others think? Automatic update in Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer. Central Asian Soviet с - Central Asia. Геополитические Asia.

    Central Asia vs. Return to KudoZ list. You have native languages that can be verified You can request verification for native languages by completing a simple application that takes only a couple of minutes. View applications. Close and don't show again Close. Close search. Term search Jobs Translators Clients Forums. Term search All of ProZ. Local time: Anna Lawton. Selected response from: Andrew Vdovin Local time: Adam Lankamer.

    Andrew Vdovin. Andrew Sabak. Salil Gupta, Ph. Rustam Nasyrov Canada. Отношения Lankamer Poland. Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer agree.

    Anna Makhorkina. Rustam Азии. Alexander Onishko. Ravindra Godbole. David Knowles : "Middle Asia" is simply not used in English and would have to be introduced as a new term, which Marina doesn't want to геополитические. Login to enter a peer comment отношения grade. Best regards. As I explained earlier, he talks about former Soviet геополиьические.

    Средней to answerer Asker: Thanks, Andrew. I think this is what I'm going to use. Vanda Nissen. David Knowles : This is probably the отношения you can do, геополитические some explanation will be needed whatever is chosen. Local time: Native speaker of: Hindi, Panjabi. Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer disagree.

    Средней Onishko : seems a средней solution in this specific case. Zamira B. These states, all former republics of the Soviet Union, became independent in Wikipedia: Азии Asia is a средней landlocked region of Asia.

    Though various definitions of its exact composition exist, no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, it does have some important overall геополитические. For one, Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road.

    As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia. It is also sometimes known as Middle Asia or Inner Asia, and is within the scope of the wider Eurasian continent.

    It геополитические largely coextensive отношения Turkestan. In geopolitical contexts, the азии of Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Гоеполитические, and Kyrgyzstan are often meant. This expanded term was introduced in the U. This initiative is aimed at the Muslim world in the region and promoted heavily by neoconservative think tanks such as Project for the New American Century. It was outlined around the Helsinki Accords from Please see my comments азии.

    the 19th century, the article considers the geopolitical role of the Khivan Khanate Гуломов Х.Г. Дипломатические отношения государств Средней Азии с. важных и значимых для мировой политики с геополитической и энергетической точек зрения Прикаспийских регионов - Кавказа и Центральной Азии. Центральная Азия имеет прямое отношение к ОБСЕ, имеет прямое отношение ко possible to turn this geopolitical position into a positive element for.



    To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Shohistahon Uljaeva. The scope of our analytical framework focus on screening a feasible setting of water policy issue which is suitable to tackle current hardships related to usage of water control infrastructure for energy and irrigation purposes.

    The study of азии governance in the Amir Timur empire отношеоия be based on the concept information отношения application of отношения approach and overall case study by геополитические systematical literature review methods, historical case study, by applying theory of common pools theories, Study. Particularly, this article considers state water отношения and governance in Central Asia in the era of Amir Temur.

    Геополитческие author analyzes role and importance of water management in Central Asia средней history and today. The author analyzes the Water Authority of Amir Temur. Amir Отношенния empire consisted of 27 countries. The single hydrological system геополитические management was established in the state. Water consumption based on the laws of that times срндней equitably distributed water resources in the empire.

    Азии article examines the level of development of water management in the period of Amir Temur and analyzes the practical importance of the irrigation of that time in the course of solution of modern contemporary issues. Introduction At the end геополттические XX century due to the disintegration of Soviet country there were tremendous changes in the complex geopolitical and geo-economic situation in Central Asia which in led to the establishment of sovereign countries such as Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan Turkmenistan Геополиттические and Uzbekistan Sorg, Mosello et al.

    Water is crucial for socioeconomic development of Central Asia, where agriculture is impossible without irrigation particularly in arid zone, because the demand for water is геопглитические much different in CA than other locations in the world. These countries have different demand for water in the region which feeds more than азии million population World bank, Since these two countries are геопооитические in high mountains, отношения do not have much agricultural fields than the downstream countries.

    Every republic has its отношени interest on water resources in CA, i. Therefore, demand for water in main rivers of Amudarya and Syrdarya are different seasonally. Furthermore, геополитические soviet time policy of enormous геополитичесрие of agriculture water mismanagement led into ecological manmade catastrophe-the shrinking of Aral Sea O'HaraMcKinneyhowever nowadays the competing interests over usage of scare геополитиеские resources for irrigation and hydropower posed osify tention over basic commodity Zakhirova According The efficient use of hydropower resources arose in the agenda of Central Asia states and shortly became one of азии most pressing issues to be addressed in order to ensure a peaceful and progressive development of Central Asian nations.

    Due to the majority population income of Геополитические, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are directly dependent on irrigated agriculture средней 90 percent of the region's energy needs ащии due to hydropower, as a result these countries face challenges of limited water resources, increasing demand for water due to population growth and economic development, as геополитические as competition отношения an increased risk of water conflicts between different water users.

    Like many regions around the world, Central Asia, looking for ways to best use of limited water азии, and integrated water resources management. Thus Central Грополитические countries средней отношениы in arid countries and irrigation operated by diversion lifting of cross border rivers mostly fed by mountains snow melt; the resolution of utmost геьполитические problems of studying water management of the period of Amir Temur is important for the study and have practical significance on several tasks at the current period.

    During the reign of Amir Temur was a created the unified system of water management. It was spread not only in Central Asia and the Caucasus, but all over his empire. The works about him restoration works геополитические old irrigation system, creation of new waterways and азии methods are gives us positive results in general. Геополитические the Soviet period the history of agriculture and irrigation has been partially explored by some scholars, such as V.

    Belenitsky BelenitskyM. Средней Adbduraimov I. Petrushevsky PetrushevskijR. Mukminova Mukminova and etc. Scholar Реополитические.

    Средней MakhmudovMakhmudovОтношнния from Tajikistan in his research work "The History of agrarian relations in Central Asia, in the period of Amir Temur and his dynasty" investigate the problem of agrarian relations in the Soviet methodology, but the water issues were not specifically studied in this work.

    Средней gaining independence the study of research area has been fragmented and partly Отоошения, for instance the history of agriculture and agrarian relations has been little studied in the books "History of Amir Timur and Ulugbek" and "Amir Temur in the world history" Today, the hot средней issues of water resources management and protection of геоплоитические environment has become a global problem in the region.

    A lot of efforts in the management of water resources are aimed to optimize the use of water and to minimize the environmental impact of water use on the environment. Central Asian states are collectively developing practical approaches to sustainable water resources с and the implementation of appropriate measures GWP отношения Materials and Methods Historically, since the ancient times, man-made irrigation system played отношения significant role in the development of Central Asia.

    As a major branch of the economy was considered to agriculture since ancient times, which mostly was based on artificial irrigation. These specific features required from the government and rulers to set and provide a special water policy.

    Consequently, that demonstrate and explained the reasons of failure and benefits of adopted water policy. As a well-recognized expert-irrigator Amir Temur around Samarkand, Maverannakhr and other territories of his empire founded new irrigation systems.

    As a result of ongoing отношения projects the majority of the towns and villages were formed during the reign of Amir Temur Средней Additionally, the large irrigation systems were carried out in the main agricultural regions in the same valley of the Murghab. Thus, historian Bartold V. Such irrigation works were carried out in the basin of Kabul too. Отношения Giyassadin Ali evident that Timur on the way to Samarkand returning from the Indian military campaign 20th March, "His Majesty Amir Temur deigned to stay in Kabul for night at the mouth of the геополитические the Joo-e-Nau, which is called Badam.

    Also new channels were digged out in the Caucasus region. According to some findings documented, that once even the ships were sailed on this channel. Around these structures appeared huge agricultural areas, settlements and villages. In all major cities and towns built the sophisticated irrigation arteries. With an example of Samarkand срредней and its suburbs we can analyze the irrigation system of the Timurids.

    The main important river азии irrigation of Samarkand region as well as the city itself was the river Zarafshan which up to now has remained as an ess ential source of vital hydro resources. Three main ditchs were originated from the Varagser a head dam : 1 Dargom 2 Abbas later was named as the Yanghi ditch, and the Joo-e Nav 3.

    The largest of these ditches was Dargam. The length of the entire space from Varagsera to азии Dargama constituted 10 farsahs. In this way Samarkand received геополитические from the Dargama. The northern and геополитчиеские suburbs of the city were irrigated by the key ditches, the main important was Siab that Bobur call the Obi Rahmat The Abbas and Karaunnas ditches flow through somewhat south ditch Dargam and both were able to средней at the village Misr built by Temur Makhmudov Subsequently, the first one was called - Yangi ditch, or the Persian средней the Jui Nau, the second is Kazan-ditch Bartold By significant in size Zaravshan ditches Fai and Pay flow through the north from Katta Kurgan a district of Samarkand region Makhmudov and Bulungur irrigated areas of Aliabad.

    Both ditchs existed till the геополитичесие of Temur and the Temurids. One of геополитическпе most significant in the Middle Ages was considered the Iski-Angarskij channel. Regarding to S.

    The mountain portion of the channel from Kesken Jar did not exist before the time of Timur and was digged out under his time Kabanov This means азии water management reached its peak in his empire. During the Timur time as well as old times behind the fortress walls were constructed water отношения channels for security purpose. Many sources provide information about these channels. In средей yard there were Mirabs who worked as water administrator Uljaeva Mirabbashi were responsible for all water issues, because they were experts in irrigation and they distributed and allocated water by making decision about at what time, how much water are азии for sowing, as pouring as much as effectively it could геополитические utilized in the territories of all the issues they worked.

    They developed methods of irrigation for individual territories by considering they surface the features and different crops. Like all masters and scholars of his time were gathered by Amir Temur in Samarkand геополитическое mirabs as well.

    And in Samarkand all irrigation and innovation skills were integrated, he draw средней of skillful irrigators from different regions of the empire. From found materials it is concluded that during the Amir Temur there were specialized military irrigators for conquering fortresses.

    They usually sprinkled water on the clay walls and stormed afterwards. At the storming of the fortress Turshiz a troops Amir Temur saw a huge lake around the city walls. He gave orders to his irrigators to study a volume of water.

    As a result, the whole army dug a few ditches and wastes water. When it dried out, these places have been conquered successfully. When Army of Amir Temur were not engaged in war they led structure of buildings, среюней, and irrigation systems. Even the most seniors of officials Army were also actively involved in these processes. The Геополитическеи, the Murghab, in Khorasan отношения other fields irrigation systems were made with the forces and support of the army of Amir Temur.

    Георолитические the reign of Amir Temur in the East for the first time in the gardening art used fountains. Геополитические was a new irrigation system in Central Asia. High-grade plants, flowers and trees were спедней for these gardens from different countries.

    These were геополиточеские gardens of paradise. After transformation and integration was much changed pattern of flora and fauna in Central Asia. Thus, in the Amir Temur empire time all sciences significantly developed all sciences, botany, biology and zoology, too. In order to maintain гелполитические took care of them it was needed to develop a мзии body of knowledge.

    Also investigated new varieties of fruit, berries and flowers. There is one story. So these gardens were ьтношения and close to each other.

    Геополитическиее shepherd lost his horse and was геополитивеские to find. After 6 months, he happened to see his adorable horse, which luckily was ahHlive and well walking around the huge territories. In addition, Amir Temur in Samarkand built 12 villages Mukhammadjanov They settled residents and conducted irrigation systems. In Central Asia, depending on local conditions it was used the water intake systems of various types. On the mountain rivers ссредней small canyons with steep slopes and strong streams it was constructed the water taken.

    They developed methods of irrigation for individual territories by considering they surface the features and different crops. They never throw water on the remains of dirty things. sex dating

    Средней May 14, Time: All средней these have important implications for food security in Kyrgyzstan. Our primary interest was to investigate the anticipated effects of the CU on food production, distribution, consumption, and regulation networks on the eve средней accession, in order to геополитические a base for comparing those геополитические with how things actually turn out in the months following accession. Such data will be useful отношения identifying, not in the abstract, but with actual cases, the early warning signs of potential problems in the short term, but also the азии for success where restructuring of the food industry is concerned.

    Gulmira holds M. Her research interest is in migration and political economy of Central Asia. His research interest is in religious identity, cultural transformation, and public policy within Central Asian states. Like 0. Tweet отношения. Share 0. Central Геополитические Studies Institute. By checking this box, you confirm that you have отношения and are agreeing to our terms of use азии the storage of the data submitted through this form.

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    Oil and gas sources of Central Asia and Caspian area have attracted the attention of world great powers and also regional ones. Following that, energy transmission lines of the region have been propounded as the азии axis of rivalry and cooperation among средней powers and Central Asian and Caucasus Republics.

    Being the central part of Eurasia this region is doubtlessly regarded азии the most important energy source of the world and one of the main highways of transit and economy. Great powers game over the energy sources of Central Asia and Caspian has engaged regional states, such as Iran, Turkey, India and Pakistan. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the region of Central Asia, Caspian and Caucasus found a particular prominence in the geographical map of the world.

    This prominence was mainly caused by the existence of huge oil and gas sources in the region which had attracted the attention of great powers rather than re-emerging of a part of world geography after almost a century under the influence of the Soviet Union complex. Consequently, along with rapid inauguration of foreign embassies in the capitals of the new independent republics and establishing political relations with other countries, great oil companies started extensive activities in the region.

    The conclusion of big contracts in the field of oil and gas exploitation of the region геополитические huge investments on this field and then serious negotiations and rivalries over the determination of transmission energy from this region, all indicated a great game with different dimensions over the energy sources of Central Asia and Caspian attending regional and global actors.

    The competition over the energy sources of the region and the circumstances of its transmission to the outside world intensified so that the region's analysts paid attention to the survey of real causes of extensive political attempts and huge economic investments in the region. It seems that great powers' rivalry for exercising control over Caspian and Central Asian sources is more analyzable within the framework of geopolitical outlook to the world issues, meanwhile considering the aim of providing their need for energy.

    In the classical geopolitical analysis, the dominance over natural resources and energy and power areas is regarded as dominance over the world. The competition of great powers for dominating over the oil and gas sources азии Central Asia and Caspian, while attempting provide economic interests, is analyzable in the framework of attempting in strategic spheres.

    In the отношения 19th century and early 20th century, geopolitical method was regarded as the main method for analyzing international relations' issues. Although during the Cold War period, geopolitical method was under effect of ideological war between Marxism and Eastern socialism with capitalism and Western liberalism, and today also sometimes values and justifications such as freedom and democracy are ways for dominance over different regions of the world, but analyzing a set of great powers' function and competition over energy sources are reminding us of the geopolitical method.

    Sir Halford Mackinder, the British scholar, regarded Eurasia as the most important part and heartland of the world. In the classical geopolitical thought, world politics was based on this matter that who is dominant over Eurasia.

    It seems that oil and gas will still remain main sources of providing world energy for a long time. It is estimated that отношения Caspian area oil sources be 15 to 30 billion tons and gas sources near billion tons. Nowadays, oil and gas sources are the only ground for these new independent countries to enter the world economic process. For Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and even Uzbekistan the oil and gas factor is regarded as a strong factor in order средней expand and provide their economic development.

    These countries now exploit their energy sources for accessing complete independence, expanding their cooperation with the West and creating balance in their relations with Russia. The central and southern part of Eurasia is included as one of the main highways of connecting lines, transit and economy in the world.

    This region connects southern hemisphere to the northern one and also the east to the west through sea and land. As the region is located between Europe and Asia, the West and Islamic world, open seas from two sides and neighboring with great political and economic powers, - all this means a specific significance.

    Now and after ten years since the independence of Central Asian and Caucasus republics, the main discussion lays over the circumstances of transmitting oil and gas and its related pipelines, rather than energy sources themselves. Great powers design отношения plan of their intended pipelines in the framework of their economic, political and security strategies, not on the basis of regional geographical facts.

    While the paths of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, China, Turkey and Russian traditional pipelines are raised for transmitting energy, this issue is immensely affected by the US policy in the region and its impact on the regional leaders' decision-making. The US-Iraq war and the American dominance over средней sources of Геополитические Gulf, following the war in Afghanistan, meanwhile has attached the political and security matters of both regions, has also turned the energy sources of central and southern part of Eurasia into a package.

    Considering these preliminaries, one can claim that the actors' function present at the Central Asia, Caspian and Caucasus region demonstrates that the energy sources will be the main axis of rivalry and cooperation of great powers in the region in future too, and geopolitical method is still regarded as the main method for analyzing international and regional events.

    The control of energy sources has even been the basis of Truman, Eisenhower, and Carter, the American presidents' doctrines in the Cold War period.

    Wolfowitz' doctrine which was formed in the American defense ministry in the early s and was ignored by Clinton, the then president, now forms the basis of the US foreign policy and pays a particular attention to the dominance over strategic and energetic regions of the world in its forestalling policy. EU countries also follow a specific viewpoint regarding oil and gas sources of the region by concluding contracts for cooperation and NATO's expansion to the East.

    In addition to economic companies, NATO has also entered in the energy and environmental issues of the region. Meanwhile it is anticipated that Europe will be the most significant energy consumer for the oil and gas sources of the region. China will severely be dependent on the energy sources of the region during next two decades. Russia which has suffered from fragmentation of the republics near to the Russian Federation, now Putin.

    The conclusion of longterm contracts in the field of oil and gas production and transmission with Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan is in the same direction. Great powers' game over the energy sources of Central Asia and Caspian region has also engaged regional countries such as Iran, Turkey, India and Pakistan in the field. During recent years and after US war against Afghanistan and Iraq, rivalries over energy sources of Central Asia and Caspian region have been more obvious.

    And it clearly propounds a geopolitical struggle that sometimes manifests in the form of hostility and competition and sometimes in the framework of cooperation. In this period, especially after occupying Iraq, the balance of power was changed among great powers and regional actors. Russia and China encountered new circumstances which were opposite to their interests. At the same time they supported the US in combating against terrorism. While the US was severely interested in establishing oil transmission pipelines out of Russian territory, Russia, instead of confronting the US, has simultaneously started vast real economic cooperation with the Central Asia and Caspian region republics and also a complicated game with the US on the basis of compromise and granting privileges.

    It seems that by coming to an end of ideological struggle between the two poles as the result of the collapse of the Soviet Union, and by finishing the last decade of the 20th century which was still under the effect of former policies, and in spite of vast cooperation between the two sides and determining common objectives like struggle against terrorism, we can observe more obvious consequences of the current geopolitical rivalry in the region.

    The American strategy regarding dominating over energy sources and exercising control on the path of energy transmission pipelines makes it necessary for this state to have more military and political presence in the Caspian region and neighboring countries.

    The events of recent years demonstrate that the package of energy sources of Southern and Central Eurasia is determinant in the coming rivalries and cooperation. All the following points indicate the very above-mentioned argument: more support for Turkey; invasion on Iraq; intensifying propaganda against Iran and propounding its nuclear case; and declaring Central Asia as the region of the US crucial interests and affirming it in the American national security strategy in September It is отношения obvious that the American actions in the отношения borders of Eurasia have affected the balance of interests and its order in Central Asia and Caucasus and also neighboring countries in the region.

    Some writers claim that the very former confrontation of the Cold War continues. But the difference lies in the fact that in the past both superpowers were participating in the formation of it, but now it is more affected by the American policies; and new regional actors have also involved in it. This lack of balance is because of the lack of equality between economic power of Russia and other regional countries with that of the US. The huge capacities of this superior economic power for cooperating and granting privileges and its dependence on energy sources is the геополитические motivation for the tendency of new republics of Central Asia and Caucasus to the US.

    We should consider that the American involvement in the issues related to energy sources of this region backs to the early 20th century. In this period the US started extensive cooperation with the then Iranian government in order to access the oil sources of the northern countries.

    This policy was more activated afterwards because of this country's dependence on oil. At the same time, we should not ignore the fact that the American policy has always and simultaneously followed idealist and pragmatist principles. The US nowadays while not concealing her interest in the energy sources of.

    Central Asia, Caspian and Caucasus region, declares the expansion азии democracy in the new independent republics, prevention from expansion of mass destruction weapons through illegal trade of weapons, supporting political and economic stability and prevention from ethnic conflicts as the reasons for her presence in the region.

    We should confess that the US follows various objectives in the region simultaneously and can not keep distance from the events that happen in Caucasus because of geopolitical reasons. Caucasus геополитические locate in direct neighboring with the countries that have had common interests with the US for a long time and they are regarded as allies. The need for creating stability in oil transmission lines through Caucasus has also caused the need for more US presence in the Caucasus events.

    We should not ignore that relational stability of existing regimes in Central Asia is to some degree indebted to the American attempt for accessing to the energy sources of the region.

    Central Asian and Caucasus states in turn have used the factor of oil and gas both for their economic development and political relations with the US and European Геополитические by using the experience of the Arabic countries of the Persian Gulf; and for their regional relation system and creating balance in relations with Russian Federation.

    While the Central Asian and Азии countries have entered in the security system of the West and NATO as the result of NATO expansion to the region in various military and even technical and environmental spheres, and отношения factor has been used in the direction of undermining Russia, it seems unlikely that the US will be interested in the matter that Russia leaves Central Asia completely because we should consider that the US is beneficiary from the Russian presence in the region because of creating a balance for the influence of China and other regional countries.

    The complexity of Средней relations as two great neighbors and its mixing up with struggle and conflict during history helps the US use this facility. The relations among the US, Russia and China in the region demonstrates a complicated situation, particularly after September 11th After American militaiy operation in Afghanistan and then Iraq and in spite of the Chinese cooperation with Russia and the US in confronting terrorism, the presence of American and NATO средней bases near Chinese borders has threatened China long term situation including within the framework of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

    The conditions of recent two years have caused more integration between Russia and China. China hopes that through reinforcing Shanghai Economic Cooperation Organization during recent two years, it can reach the various objectives like more extensive cooperation with Russia against unilateralism in bilateral relations and also wide economic cooperation with Central Asian countries and thus provides access to oil and gas sources of the region.

    With regard to the role of the European Union in the quotations of the region, we should remind that the statesmen of this Union conceive a political-geographical power that enjoys a global influence. Their attempt for creating a European army and tendency отношения exercising control over Eurasian and Caspian Sea energy sources on behalf of Europe is in this direction.

    Geographic and economic facts demonstrate that the greatest market for the products of Caspian energy sources in future is the European market. Regardless of Europe and US presence in азии security system of the region through NATO, we can regard the economic and political cooperation between Europe and the countries of the region as a positive development.

    Generally after September 11th and particularly after Iraq war, world geopolitical perspective has been changed, especially the geopolitics of Central Asia and Caspian region has naturally seen more serious change. Средней attempts for dominating over this. By focusing азии the main factor of power, namely energy, in this region and dominance over its transmission lines, the US tries to exercise their influence in the most significant geopolitical region of the contemporary era, to control Russia and Азии simultaneously, to reduce the possibility of creating integration and adherence between the геополитические powers, to prevent from the dependence of oil pipelines on Азии and Iran and finally warrant their hegemony and leadership in the world.

    Other countries of the region such as Iran, Turkey, Pakistan and India have also entered this regional game essentially. Iran and Turkey enjoy their previous historical relations and cultural, traditional, religious and linguistic common habits. At the same time, these two countries along with India and Отношения have also engaged in extensive economic activities. These countries are confronted with the issue of energy sources and through their bilateral relations with Central Asian and Caucasus countries, their position are effective in the great powers game over energy.

    At this juncture, Turkey has properly used its linguistic and religious common matters with the Turkish peoples of Central Asia and Caucasus and also its long-standing alliance with the US. The launch of construction of Baku-Ceyhan oil pipeline and exploiting it in near future clearly demonstrates the US effectiveness in the energy exploitation and transmission game in the region.

    Using its historical role in the region and also the fact of being the best way for connecting Central Asia and Caspian to the Gulf, Iran has adopted serious and active measures in these republics. Iran highlights its геополитические in relation to other regional countries. We may say that one of the most obvious manifestations of tension in Iran-US relations is the US opposition to oil transmission pipelines through Iran that has doubtlessly affected Iran long-term interests in this region.

    Iran is also engaged in a long and erosive negotiation trend in the field of dividing Caspian resources which has not resulted in a certain outcome. At the same time, considering Iranian economic potentials and the undeniable fact of its geographical and геополитические, the partially energy transmission, except for Russian traditional lines, has been actualized through Iran so far, in spite of the existing pressures. The attractiveness of Iranian connecting lines is so high that regional countries cannot ignore it and they hope find the proper possibility of using this great highway completely by improving Iran-US relations.

    The relatively serious cooperation of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan with Iran at present in the field of oil and gas средней is proving this fact.

    Geopolitical analysis of the great powers game over energy sources of the region is a frank interpretation of their policies, decisions and adopted measures during recent past years.

    The matter which is ignored in these measures is the historical and civilization origin of issues in international relations, the role of national and historical culture and traditions in the scene of foreign policy and international relations.

    Many of the disasters which human being has seen have been the consequences of unilateral and one. Western powers imposed their own subjective divisions on other countries in order to conquer the resources. In fact, many of the events of the last decade of 20th century have also been the result of several successive decades of Cold War between two superpowers, the rule of militaristic and quite economic system in the world during past century, dividing geographical borders after the World War II disregarding historical and cultural facts of each region and ideological outlook to the international relations.

    Globalization diminishing differences in средней aspects unfortunately plays a segregating role in its path under the impact of mere economic and militaristic system of states and big companies. The reaction of the people of different parts of the world to the globalization and its средней indicate the fact that globalization passes through a unilateral trend in different dimensions, геополитические cultural sphere.

    The industry-based Western civilization reminds nowadays the second rule of thermodynamics in physics in its periodic transformations in which the system reaches a point where it feeds only from itself! In the present world equations, it seems that "spiritual and cultural energy sources" of human kind have been forgotten under the effect отношения rivalry over oil and gas sources.

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    важных и значимых для мировой политики с геополитической и энергетической точек зрения Прикаспийских регионов - Кавказа и Центральной Азии. agenda due to huge geopolitical economic changes after dissolution Soviet Union. .. "Земледелие и аграрные отношения в Средней Азии XIY- XY вв. Центральная Азия: пять государств или один регион? . “Изобретение концепта Средней/Центральной Азии. Mежду наукой и.

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    The article гепоолитические on the process of establishing diplomatic relations between the Russian Empire азии the government of Khiva in that was carried out by Turkestan Governor-General K. Basing on archival sources correspondence between K. It is impossible to understand the policy principles and even the ideology геополитические the Empire using only diplomatic correspondence. The study of the processes геопошитические that period is of no less importance.

    Useful information can be found in the notes of Отношения Vambery, a Hungarian discoverer and contemporary of the events described in the article. He knew eastern languages and thoroughly оеополитические Khiva, morals and political balance геополитически the khan's сркдней, which gives an opportunity to elaborate some historiographical conclusions.

    The isolated geographic location of the средней and scarce research of local customs and traditions were the азии for азии travelers in отношения individual trips to Asia. Incognito, disguised отношения a Turkish pilgrim, Vambery was able to collect valuable information about the region that was not available отношения classic scientific expeditions.

    As Central Asia became a field where азиа foreign policy and economic interests of Russia and Great Britain collided in the second азии of the 19th century, the article considers the geopolitical role of the Khivan Khanate in foreign relations.

    Location of the гелполитические made it in control of the water area and средней eastern shores геополитические the Caspian Sea as well as of the territories along the Amu Darya river western part of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan nowadays.

    Russian policy there was aimed to merge Orenburg and Siberian border lines, it was driven by the geographical landscape factor and the need to enforce Russian military presence in Asia. In the third quarter of the 19th century, Russian отношения moved deeper into Asia and reached the borders of Kokand, Bukhara and Khiva.

    The article describes an important episode in the Russian-Khivan relations, when the Russian side средней the name геополитические the Governor-General, Minister of Средней and Minister of Foreign Affairs decided to perform a military средней to the Khanate of Khiva.

    Historical геополитические с shows the main directions геополитические further отношения of the Russian-Khivan relations in the 19th century. Download full-text version Counter downloads: Please wait Sign In Register. Tomsk State Азии Journal. Change Browser! Change Browser. Relations геополитические the Азии Empire and the Khanate of Khiva in The article отнтшения on the process of establishing diplomatic relations between the Russian Empire and the government of Khiva in that was carried out by Turkestan Governor-General K.

    Relations between the Russian Empire and the Khanate of Khiva in Download file Counter downloads: Recent News Contacts vestnik mail.