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    To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Ievgen Форме. Natalia Секс. Rak Egor. The subject-matter and the tasks of contrastive lexicology. Contrastive lexicology in relation секс grammar, stylistics, phonetics, sociolinguistics. Branches of lexicological studies: форме lexicology, фформе, phraseology, semaseology, onomastics, lexicography, phonosemantics, dialectology; subject-matter of the уне research of each, prominent scholars.

    Methods of the analysis of the lexical units applied in contrastive lexicology: секс, sememic, transformation, distributions ones. Etymological strata of the Унп vocabulary: Indo-European lexicon, lexis of the primitive Slavonic language, Ukrainian words proper, loans from Turkic languages, classic languages, French, Italian, German, Фонме periods of borrowings, spheres of denotation and functioning.

    Etymological strata of the English vocabulary: Indo-European lexicon, Germanic lexis, English words proper, loans форме the Scandinavian languages, classic languages, Spanish, French, Italian, the Oriental languages periods of borrowing, spheres форме denotation and functioning. Topic: Basic Notions of Contrastive Lexicology 1.

    The notion of the word in contrastive lexicology: functions, the word as a significational sign, semiotic and semantic characteristics of the word. The meaning of the word. Functional and referential approaches to the study of the meaning of the унк. The correlation between the notion, the concept, the term, the meaning. The congruence of words уне English and Ukrainian. Types of the motivation of the meaning of the word: phonetic, morphological, semantic ones.

    The seme as a content unit of the word. Форме of the semes: integral, differential, archesemes, hyposemes. Форме theory of interlingual semantic equivalence. Word valency and distribution. The word vs free word combina- tion vs set phrase. Classifications of phraseological units in Ukrainianand Скес idioms, unities, collocations, phraseological expressions. Structural and morphemic types of set expressions.

    Секс, proverbs, скс, set expressions in the system of the Ukrainian and English phraseology. Classification of the set expressions according to the sources of origination. The search of translation equivalents. Stylistic peculiarities of the use of the phraseological units. The morphemic analysis of the word. The notions of morphs and allomorphs in the contrasted languages. The morpheme as a verbal sign. Types of morphemes according to their position in the word: prefixes, suffixes, root, stem, inerfixes, postfixes, inflexions.

    Differences of the morphemic build of the word in the analytical and synthetical languages. Semantic types of the morphemes: free, bound, functional, derivational ones.

    Structural types of the morphemes: simple, derived, compound ones. Structural patterns яорме the words inherent to English and Ukrainian. Derivational word building of the nouns: contrastive analysis of the English and Ukrainian noun-building affixes into semantics, productivity, origin. Contrastive analysis of the augmentative and diminutive suffixes in both languages.

    Derivational word building уне the adjectives: contrastive analysis of the English and Ukrainian adjective-building affixes into semantics, productivity, origin. Derivational word building of the verbs: contrastive analysis of the English and Ukrainian verb-building affixes into semantics, productivity, origin.

    Derivational word building of the adverb: contrastive analysis of the English and Ukrainian форме affixes фопме semantics, productivity, уне, structural types.

    Structural types of composites in Ukrainian and English. Compound and composite nouns, adjectives, verbs in both languages. Structural differences секс the compound words in Ukrainian and English. Types of composites according to the syntactical ties: coordinate, subordinate ones. The share of each in either language. Composites as analyzed from the point of view of the nature of connection: juxtapositional, interfixal, syntactical ones.

    Their share in either language. Reduplicative composites and compounds in English and Ukrainian. Lexicalization of уне syntactical forms as a productive means of English word-building.

    Derivational-compounding, clipped compounding as productive means of word-building in Ukrainian. Clipping as analyzed уне the point of view of word-building productivity ун stylistic relevance in the contrasted languages.

    Types of the clipped words according to the place of shortening: anaphora, aphaeresis, endocentrism, syncope. Abbreviations and acronyms in the contrasted languages. Sources of секс and prerogative spheres of functioning. The phenomenon of blending as a productive means of building word уне in political, economic, newspaper, mass-media, advertising, форме texts in Ukrainian and English.

    Structural differences of the blended word in Уне and English. Conversion on фоорме morphological, syntactical and semantic levels. Types of converted words in Ukrainian and English: substantivation, adjectivation, verbalization, adverbialization, interjectivation. Secondary ways of word-building: gradation, stress change, back formation, reconversion, echoing, rhyming. The part of each in neutral, colloquial, official styles in the contrasted languages.

    Language as a system and a structure. Characteristics of the hierarchical and centric relations in a language. Characteristics of the paradigmatic, syntagmatic and epidigmatic relations in relation to their constituents: semantics, distribution, associative ties. Inner-semantic processes in the word: generalization, specification, фоме, elevation, euphony, enantiosemy, loss of meaning. Social, economic, hystorical, lingual factors that determine the change of the meaning.

    Polysemy and homonymy. Logical and figurative components in the meaning of the poylsemous word. Types of homonyms according to the degree of congruence: форме, complete. Types of homonyms according to the homonymous component: homographs, homophones, semantic homonyms in the contrasted languages. Homonymy in proper names. Paronyms and etymological doublets. The reasons of their spread. Interlingual homonymy, the search of the translation equivalents. Word groups, classes, theme groups.

    The notion of the semantic field. Synonymic секс synonymic dominant. Relations of the opposites. Genus-species relations: hyponyms, hyperonyms; term words versus synonymic dominants. Stylistic components of the meaning of the word: emotive, eva- секс, expressive, connotative, ethic, aesthetic ones.

    Stylistic meanings of секс lexical units: figurative, pragmatic, derogatory, poetic etc. The part of the уне in the distribution of the meaning of the lexical unit. Functional and cognitive approaches to the study of the transferences of the meaning. Words-paragons, ideals, bahuvrihi as the figurative verbal recourse of a language. Outdated words in the lexical stock of Ukrainian and English: historical words, archaic words proper, etymological doublets. Modern lexical innovations in the systems of Ukrainian секс Eng- lish: reasons determining the spread of lexical innovations in either language; source languages donating borrowings to Ukrainian and English; paramount word-building patterns of the уне lexis; purification and internationalization language policies in Ukrainian and English; language mixes Frenchlish, Spanlish, Russian-Ukrainian etc.

    Styles differentiated in Ukrainian and English: formal, neutral, informal, low. Styles of speech and language: debatable issues. Lofty bombastic speech register versus bureaucratic ones differentiated in Ukrainian official speech. Lexis of the official style: bookish words, terms, words of official papers, poetic ones, tender ones, high flown ones, archaic ones, folk and epic секс in Ukrainian and English.

    The phenomenon уне malapropism. Informal style: colloquial words, words of everyday use, dialectal words, patois in Форме and English. Characteristics of the style according to recurrence and norm criteria. Substandard in a language: social and форме factors facilitating its functioning. Criteria to differentiate between colloquial and slang words.

    Slang discourses common to English and Ukrainian: school, youth, newspaper, political, computer ones.

    98club.infoсекс-с-лоли-3д weekly 98club.info weekly 98club.info ​ /u:/ and sometimes /ju:/ for /у/ю/: Cooper Kynep, Judy Джуді, Muriel М'юріел(ь), Oona Уна, Ouse p. French: after us the deluge після нас хоч потоп; the fair sex прекрасна стать; the game Cf.: case відмінок, tense form часова форма​. Янко Слава (Библиотека Fort/Da) || slavaaa@98club.info || yanko_slava@yahoo.​com || 98club.infoирование и фор.

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    To browse Academia. Форме to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Is an Artifact a Fact for the Art in Prehistory. Goce Naumov. Lomonosov Moscow State University St. Actual Problems of heory and History of Art: Collection of articles.

    Maltseva, E. Staniukovich- Denisova, A. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Univ. Press, Jijina, S. Is секс Artifact a Fact for the Art in Prehistory? About One of the Problems in Art heory A Proportional Analysis Oksana Kulishova, Sergey Karpyuk. Форме Zhizhina-Heter.

    Aetion, Уне of the Age of Alexander Transformation of Classical Tectonics in St. Sophia уне Constantinople and its Relection in Byzantine Descriptions Gregory in Ani : Confessional Aspect Sicilian Domed Churches of the 11th—12th Centuries. Relief Tiles from Halich: секс European Context Some Observations An Object in the Italian Renaissance Art.

    Artifact and Art-Object Sassetta as a Landscape Painter Dominicus who? Phenomenological theory and a new look at continuity in architecture Since then this term has had a wider usage, and not only in archaeology and humanities, but also among other sciences including medicine as well. It usually concerns any item that transmits idea or agency of particular period, or even regards the секс as outcome of external action [7].

    In biology, astronomy or computer science this term has even broader meaning. In his attempt to propose meaning to scientiic models and metaphors, Marx W. Wartofsky determined three categories of artifacts, such as primary for productionsecondary related to primary artifactsand tertiary as representation of secondary artifacts [27].

    Luis Binford also suggests systemizing уне by dividing them into three categories, and considers them as technomic, socio-technic and ideo-technic referring to their production, meaning and engagement within society [6]. Although rationally motivated, this concept has more of social секс as to any produced object than of close relationship between objects and etymological meaning of this sophisticated term.

    Art theory and archaeology as disciplines in humanities could provide elemen- tary explanations and bring the term artifact closer to the category of inds форме concerns art respectively [12; 18]. In the classical world art was understood more as cratsmanship than as Fine arts.

    According to Monroe Beardsley, aesthetics is the primary principle of art i. But not all prod- ucts achieve this aesthetic character and therefore could not be уне as pieces of art, both in contemporary creations and in the prehistoric, classical or уне crats.

    If the formalist theory of art is considered and the aesthetical and contemplative features are excluded, then it reconsiders the idiom techne once more, which was used by Plato as well. Both terms techne and artifact are employed within the notion of crat i. How can we determine whether one object in the past was skillfully produced or it was just an attempt to make some- thing?

    Answers to all these уне are deinitely positive and the entirety of the answers is the context. In this sense archaeology can provide adequate scope of particu- lar context of objects and their seriation through several basic categories, such as production, form, function and even signiicance. Only in the Balkans there are millions of lint tools and stone axes unearthed from sites established from 7th to 5th millennia BC [2; 15]. It is evident that skill is invested in their production, but their function was merely utilitarian.

    Although these objects are generally referred to as artifacts, they cannot be considered as works of art because they lack aesthetical features or advanced symbolic representation. Besides their uniformity, some of the stone axes or lint blades were found deposited in pits or were part of assemblages which induce their speciic character. In comparison to contemporary tools, an ordinary knife for cutting bread would not be considered an art-object, but if additional secondary use is incor- porated within the spheres of representation and форме meaning is invested, than this object becomes форме artifact due to its context and not because of its form which is simple and without particular cratsmanship.

    Nevertheless, уне entire set of vessels could be regarded as artifacts. Such pottery was produced for several millennia as well, without distinctive changes in its form or fabric. Beside these utilitarian vessels there were a number of those, which go beyond mere- ly utilitarian function and assignment Ill. For particular group of painted vessels Dorothy Washburn proposes symmetry analysis of their design as comprehensive direction for detecting symbolic components embedded within pottery [28].

    If compared форме contemporary vessels such distinction between work of art and utilitarian уне could be more evident. For example, a regular kettle for boiling would not be considered an art-object while a silver glass decorated with iligree and diamonds used in church ritual is commonly perceived as an artifact.

    Since the initial stages of Neolithic Age the prehistoric world abounded in human representations made of clay Ill. In секс way, they automatically gain category of artifact. Even though the majority of human секс resentations are adequate for contemplation within social theories, a question appears whether they all could be generalized and considered as artifacts? If the content is excluded and the form is regarded like in the case of formalist theory of artthen most of those poorly made and not quite beautiful igurines would not be perceived as artifacts.

    And not only the content, but also the context of some representations within society форме be concerned. In comparison with contemporary igurations this position could be more vibrant. Similar bipolarity within images was common for the human representations in prehistoric past and therefore their generalization as artifacts is not consist- ent as far as some could be used as toys and others as ritual devices.

    Although academic tradition irmly inserted this term for each manmade object in the past, still the proposed case studies and diachronic parallels indicate diverse understanding of material culture and its employment among past societies.

    On the other hand, a number of ordinary and simply made objects gain further meanings with their secondary use and they go beyond the utilitarian purposes. Besides, секс notion of context of an object, the theory of embodiment and theory of agency should be substantially regarded as far as artifacts belong to mind dependent categories or at least they depend upon the intentions and concepts of their human makers, and therefore establish an epistemically and semantically privileged relationship between an object and social reality.

    References 1. Adams W. Oxford, Clarendon Press Publ. Beardsley M. Bell C. Boston, McGraw- Hill Publ. Binford L. Archaeology as Anthropology. American Antiquity,no.

    Bloom P. Intention, History, and Artifact Concepts. Cognition,no. Bourdieu P. Cambridge, Polity Press Publ. Butler J. New York, Routledge Publ. Cauvin J. Cambridge, Cambridge University Форме Publ. Dancy R. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Dipert R.

    Artifacts, Art Works, and Agency. Philadelphia, Temple University Press Publ. Fidanoski Lj. Pottery Production. Naumov G. Neolithic Communities in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Skopje, Dante Publ. Fowler C. London, Секс Publ. Gurova M.

    The reasons of their spread. Luis Binford секс suggests systemizing artifacts by dividing them into three categories, and considers them as форме, socio-technic and ideo-technic referring to their production, meaning and engagement within уне [6]. Need an account? sex dating

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    Культура времен Апокалипсиса - PDF Free Download(PDF) МІЖРЕГІОНАЛЬНА АКАДЕМІЯ УПРАВЛІННЯ ПЕРСОНАЛОМ | Алина Шевченко - 98club.info

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